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Nanotechnology. History

Interesting Facts

Ancient Egyptians used the paint to paint the hair black. A paste of lead oxide, lime, and water, mixed and the resulting nanoparticles galena, which have a size of up to five nanometers. Black pigment melanin was achieved, which was distributed in keratin hair. Coloring paste reacts with the sulfur and provides stability even hair color. [1].

painting of ancient Egypt
Samples painting Egyptians. In humans and mythical characters hair color black

Blue paint Mayan kept bright color to our days. It was prepared by mixing the particles of wood and clay indigo. Organic dyes are rapidly destroyed, but in conjunction with inorganic nanostructures formed a good defense.

blue paint on samples of Maya art
Mayan art samples

The famous Lycurgus Cup made ancient Roman craftsmen around the fourth century BC. He is green and opaque in the daylight. But if you put in a cup of light, the walls become translucent cup with a reddish tint.
Color changes, because the particles of gold and silver from the fifty and one hundred nanometers are part of the glass. Such glass is used in the creation of stained glass of medieval European cathedrals.

Roman Lycurgus Cup
Roman Lycurgus cup change color depending on the light

Damascus swords have a very solid steel blade that is razor cuts the hair on the fly. In the steel includes carbon nanotubes, which are formed by a special forging.

Damascus swords with very hard steel blade
Damascus sword is amazingly strong and sharp blade

The secrets of these productions indulged from generation to generation, and the reasons for these unique properties have not been investigated. Only after the appearance of nanoscience, scientists were able to find an explanation for this unique property.



Chronology of events

400 BC. The Greek philosopher Democritus first used the word "atom", which in Greek means "indivisible", for a description of the smallest particles of matter [2].

Greek philosopher Democritus

1756. Immanuel Kant "Physical monadology". The first work, which examines the concept of "atom".

German philosopher I. Kant
Immanuel Kant

1847. English physicist Michael Faraday first studied the optical properties of nanosized gold colloids and thin films based on it (http://www.nanogallery.info/nanogallery/?ipg=126).

M. Faraday investigated colloidal solutions optical properties of colloidal solutions
Michael Faraday Colloidal solutions change color depending on the size of the gold particles

1905. Albert Einstein published a paper in which he showed that the size of a sugar molecule is about 1 nanometer.

sugar molecule and its size
The size of a sugar molecule is 1 nm

1912. Ernest Rutherford in a series of subtle experiments proved that the atom is similar to the solar system, the center of which - a massive core, surrounded by light electrons revolve. This is how the planetary model of the atom.

E. Rutherford and his model of the atom planetary model of the atom
Ernest Rutherford Rutherford's planetary model of the atom

1928. Irish inventor Edward Synge proposed a device scanning optical near field microscope (near-field optical microscope).

inventor E. Synge near-field optical microscope
E.H. Synge Near-field optical microscope

1931. Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska created the prototype of the first transmission electron microscope (TEM), which consists of two consecutive magnetic lenses), and subsequently has a resolution of 50 nm (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_microscope_technology).

M. Knoll and E. Ruska built a prototype TEM prototype of the first electron microscope
Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska Prototype of the first transmission electron microscope (TEM)

1938. James Hillier and Albert Prebus collected the first practical transparent (transmission) electron microscope at the University of Toronto (Canada).

J. Hillier and A. Prebus collected the first practical electron microscope first practical TEM
James Hillier and Albert Prebus The first practical transparent (transmission) electron microscope

1955. Erwin Muller invented the field ion microscope, which allowed him to see individual atoms for the first time (http://www.rps.psu.edu/indepth/atom_microscope.html).

E. Muller - the inventor of the field-ion microscope Field ion microscope created by E. Muller and K. Bahadur
Erwin Muller Field ion microscope created Erwin Muller

1959. Richard Feynman first published by analyzing the prospects for miniaturization. Nobel laureate Richard Feynman gave a lecture at the California University of Technology at the American Physical Society under the name of "Downstairs is full of places: an invitation to a new world of physics," which was first considered the possibility of creating nanoscale components and devices, a whole new way - by the piece "atomic "assembly. The scientist said: "While we are forced to use atomic structures that nature offers us," and then added: "But in principle, physicist could synthesize any substance for a given chemical formula" [3]. Start of nanotechnology is usually associated with a lecture by Professor Richard Feynman.

R. Feynman founder of nanotechnology
Richard Feynman

1968. Alfred Yi Cho and John R. Arthur developed the theoretical basis of molecular-beam epitaxy, used in obtaining quantum dots.

1970. Japanese scientist Eiji Osawa suggested the existence of a molecule of 60 carbon atoms, in the form of a truncated icosahedron.

E. Osawa first opened C60 C60 dug E. Osawa and Z. Yoshida
Eiji Osawa C60 first opened Eiji Osawa

1973. Quantum dots were discovered by Louis E. Brus in colloidal solutions and Alexey Ekimov in a glass matrix.

L. Brus discovered quantum dots in colloidal solutions quantum dots and colloidal solutions
Louis E. Brus Quantum dots in colloidal solutions

1974. Norio Taniguchi introduced into scientific use the term "nanotechnology" at the International Conference on industrial production in Tokyo. The term used to describe the hyperfine processing materials with nanometer precision, and mechanisms of nanometer size.

N. Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology
Norio Taniguchi

1981. Nobel Laureates Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer, working at that time in the IBM branch office in Zurich, created a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), is able to see a single atom [4].

G. Binnig and H. Rohrer created STM schematic diagram of an STM probe
Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer Probe - the bulk of the STM

1981. American scientist Herbert Gleiter first used the term "nanocrystalline". Later for the characteristics of the materials they used words such as "nanostructured", "nanophase" "nanocomposite", etc.

H. Gleiter introduced several nanocrystalline
Herbert Gleiter

1985. Nobel laureate Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley first investigated the properties of fullerenes. Them in the study of the mass spectra of the vapor graphite revealed large aggregates of C60 and C70, consisting respectively of 60 and 70 carbon atoms.

R. Curl, H. Kroto and R. Smalley studied fullerenes appearance of fullerenes
Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley Samples of fullerenes

1986. American physicist Eric Drexler, in his book about the possibilities of nanotechnology, "Engines of Creation: the coming era of nanotechnology" based on biological models, introduced the concept of "molecular machines", and developed the ideas proposed by Feynman nanotech strategy "from the bottom up".

E. Drexler predicted the development of molecular machines appearance of the molecular mechanisms
Eric Drexler Samples of molecular machines

1989. Donald Eigler an employee of IBM, put the name of your company xenon atoms.

D. Eigler gave rise to nanolithography nanologotip of IBM
Donald Eigler Company name IBM posted xenon atoms

1990. German scientists Wolfgang Kretschmer and Kosta Fostiropolous developed a technology enabling production of fullerenes in large enough quantities. As it turned out, such complexes exist in the natural carbon minerals - zhung.

1991. Japanese scientist Sumio Iijima opens the carbon nanotubes.

S. Iijima discovered nanotubes appearance of carbon nanotubes
Sumio Iijima Samples of carbon nanotubes

1991. In Japan, the government launched a program to develop techniques to manipulate atoms and molecules (the project "Nuclear Technology").

1992. Scientists Guo BC, Wei S, Purnell J., Buzza S., Castleman AW, Jr. found stable fullerene-like nanoparticles Ti8C12

highly stable and symmetrical molecule Ti8C12
Molecular structure Ti8C12

1998. Dutch physicist Cees Dekker from Delft University of Technology has created a transistor using nanotubes, using them as molecules. For this he had the first in the world to measure the electrical conductivity of such a molecule.

S. Dekker created nano-transistor transistor consisting of carbon nanotubes
Cees Dekker Transistor using nanotubes

1999. Wilson Ho and Hyojune Lee studied the chemical bonds, collecting molecules of carbonyl iron Fe(CO)2 of constituents: iron (Fe) and carbon monoxide (CO) - a scanning tunneling microscope (http://www.physics.uci.edu/~wilsonho/c&en112999.html) [5].

W. Ho and H. Lee studied chemical engineering connection Fe(CO)2 obtaining carbonyl iron from iron and carbon monoxide
Wilson Ho and Hyojune Lee The study of the chemical bonds of molecules of carbonyl iron Fe(CO)2

2000. U.S. supported the creation of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (National Nanotechnology Initiative). Nanotechnology research received government funding. U.S. launched a research program called Natsioanalnoy Nanotehnilogicheskoy Initiative (NNI) (http://nano.gov).

investment in nanotechnology require large cash investments
Investing in Nanotechnology

2000. Japanese Economic Association "Keidanren" (http://www.keidanren.or.jp/english/) organized a special section on nanotechnology in industrial and technical committee.

2002. Cees Dekker combined carbon nanotubes with DNA having a single nanomachines.

Cees Dekker Cees Dekker combined carbon nanotubes with DNA
Cees Dekker The compound of carbon tubes with DNA

2003. Carlo Montemagno combined molecular motor (rotor) with nanoscale silicon devices. This opens up new possibilities for molecular nanomachines.

Canadian bioengineer C. Montemagno molecular compound engine and nanoscale devices
Carlo Montemagno Molecular rotor connection with nanoscale silicon devices

2003. Professor Feng Liu from the University of Utah, using experience Franz Giessibl, using atomic force microscopy images of the electron orbits constructed by analyzing their perturbation motion around the nucleus

F. Liu and F. Giessibl built models of electron orbits appearance of electron orbits around atoms
Feng Liu and Franz Giessibl The images of the electron orbits

2004. David Baker and Brian Kuhlman create new enzymes with altered function not found in nature
(http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-11/uow-pfr112508.php, http://phys.protres.ru/lectures/protein_physics/l01.html).

D. Baker and B. Kuhlman created new enzymes enzymes with altered function
David Baker and Brian Kuhlman Enzymes with altered function not found in nature

2004. Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov discovered graphene (allotropic modification of carbon), which is a single layer of carbon atoms.

A. Geim and K. Novoselov discovered graphene appearance of graphene
Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov Structure and appearance of graphene

2005. Christian Schafmeister has developed a new technology of synthesis of macromolecules with prescribed functions, shape and weight (from 1,000 to 10,000 daltons). In the future, it will synthesize molecular building blocks for the production of nanoscale (http://vsip.mgopu.ru/data/2033.doc).

C. Schafmeister synthesis of molecules with the given parameters
Christian Schafmeister Synthesis of macromolecules for nanomachines

2006. Erik Winfree and Paul WK Rothemund created a complex two-dimensional shape of the DNA structures, the so-called DNA origami
(http://www.membrana.ru/particle/1808, http://lenta.ru/articles/2011/04/20/origami).

E. Winfrey and W.K. Rothemund able to collect DNA molecules into two-dimensional shapes DNA origami are obtained by the action of chemical. reagents
Erik Winfree and Paul W.K. Rothemund DNA origami

2006. James Tour and his colleagues at Rice University have created a nano-sized car made of oligo (phenylene ethynylene) with alkinilovymi axles and four spherical C60, in the form of wheels (buckyballs). Under the effect of rising temperatures, nanomachine moved to the gold surface. As a result of buckyballs turned the wheels in a conventional car (http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2006/March/29030603.asp).

J. Tour contributed to biophysics nanomachine on a gold surface
James Tour Nanoscale car

2007. J. Fraser Stoddart synthesized a circular molecule that can change their properties under the influence of electricity. In the future, this will allow you to create molecular muscles (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ange.201206571/abstract) [6].

J. F. Stoddart synthesized ring molecules creation of molecular muscles very promising
J. Fraser Stoddart Length of polymers can shrink and expand in concert under the impact medium acidity (pH). Length decreases with increasing pH and increases with decreasing

2008. Nobel Laureates in Chemistry Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien fluorescent cells extracted from jellyfish and isolated them from the green fluorescent protein (green fluorescent protein - GFP). Green fluorescent protein - a substance through which the jellyfish glow in the dark

O. Shimomura, M. Chalfie and R. Y. Tsien green fluorescent protein extracted from jellyfish
Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien Green fluorescent protein extracted from jellyfish

2009. Nadrian Seeman and his colleagues at New York University have created self-assembling DNA structures that can fold into 3D rhombohedral crystals, with the installed orientation

N. Seeman is working with the DNA structures DNA structure collapsed into rhombohedral crystals
Nadrian Seeman The structure of DNA coiled into a rhombohedral crystal

2009. Japanese scientists Yoshiaki Sugimoto, Masayuki Abe and Oscar Custance learned how to choose and manipulate individual atoms of silicon, tin and lead using an AFM probe, for the construction of complex molecular structures at room temperature
(http://www.hizone.info/index.html?di=200703023, http://www.uam.es/gruposinv/spmth/highlights/2008_Science_322_413/highlight.html).

Y. Sugimoto, M. Abe and O. Custance manipulation of the silicon atoms at the surface of the tin
Yoshiaki Sugimoto, Masayuki Abe and Oscar Custance Abbreviation of "Si" wrote a separate silicon atoms on the tin, with the AFM probe

2010. IBM has developed a technology for ultra-fast and accurate lithography, which allows you to create 3D nanoscale textured surface. With the help of a silicon AFM tip was drawn relief map of the world, the size of 22 microns for the 2 min 23 sec

the smallest map of the world
Relief map of the world, the size of 22 microns

2011. German physicist Leonhard Grill used a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to describe the electronic and mechanical properties of individual molecules and the polymer chains
(http://www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de/pc/grill/, http://www.fu-berlin.de/en/presse/informationen/fup/2009/fup_09_037/index.html).

German physicist L. Grill photo polymer chain made ​​by STM
Leonhard Grill Polymer chain in the STM

2012. German physicists Gerhard Meyer, Leo Gross and Jascha Repp out of IBM Research Zurich obtained images of the electron charge distribution in the molecule, using scanning probe microscopy. This allowed sufficient detail to determine the structure of the individual molecules, as well as make and break specific chemical bonds (http://rnd.cnews.ru/news/line/index_science.shtml?2012/02/28/479275, http://p2p.kz/blog/interesting_in_the_world/217.html).

G. Meyer, L. Gross and J. Repp distribution of electronic charges in a molecule naphthalocyanines
Gerhard Meyer, Leo Gross and Jascha Repp Electronic charge distribution in the molecule naftalotsianita


Sources of information:

  1. http://planete-zemlya.ru/drevnejshie-nanotexnologii/
  2. http://monada.info/
  3. http://innosfera.org/node/340
  4. http://900igr.net/datai/meditsina/Nanotekhnologii-v-meditsine/0007-003-Nanotekhnologija-khronologija.png
  5. http://www.nano.gov/timeline
  6. http://www.foresight.org/nano/history.html


Author: Alexander Pavlenko

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