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Nanosensors. Introduction.

General concepts
Sensor - a device for monitoring the facility, process or environment, transforming the physical and chemical properties of the signal.

Nanosensor - sensor having nanometer (less 100 nm) scale, or at least one of the three dimensions, or relating to the material as a whole or its structural elements.


Applications sensors (nanosensors)

  • Medicine
  • Ecology
  • Safety
  • Industry
  • Military-space complex
  • Comforts of home


Types of sensors


Types of sensors (extended) [1]
Classification on the measured parameter:

  • Pressure
  • Flow sensors
  • Level
  • Temperatures
  • Sensor concentration
  • Radioactivity
  • Move
  • Terms
  • Photosensors
  • Angular position sensor
  • Vibration sensor
  • Sensor mechanical quantities
  • Sensor arc protection

Classification on the basis of actions:

  • Optical sensors (photocells)
  • Moving coil sensor (Hall effect)
  • The piezoelectric sensor
  • Load cells
  • Capacitive sensor
  • Based sensors
  • Inductive

Types of sensors: ultrasonic sensors [2]
Sound with a frequency of more than 16 kHz are called ultrasonic. Ultrasonic sensors operate on the principle of echolocation - the distance to the object is calculated by measuring the time between the moments of making and receiving sound pulse and the speed of sound in the medium.

Factors affecting the quality of signal reception:
- The temperature and humidity of the environment;
- The level of ambient noise;
- The distance to the object, the size and geometry of the surface.

variety of ultrasonic sensors

Using of ultrasonic sensors:
- Proximity sensor;
- Remote detection of different objects;
- Measurement of distances.

Types of sensors: infrared sensors [3]
Infrared sensors - sensors operating in the infrared.

Infrared radiation - electromagnetic radiation, which occupies the spectral region between the red end of the visible light (with a wavelength of λ = 0,74 m) and microwave radiation (λ ~ 1-2 mm).

The principle changes in the level of infrared radiation is used in motion sensors to detect movement of any objects.

application infrared sensors

Using infrared sensors:
- Automatic control of lighting;
- The alarm.

Types of sensors: piezoelectric sensors [4]
Piezoelectric sensors - a device that uses the piezoelectric effect in crystals, ceramics or films and converting mechanical energy into electrical energy and vice versa.

The piezoelectric effect - the effect of dielectric polarization under mechanical stress (direct piezoelectric effect). Inverse piezoelectric effect - the appearance of deformation of the electric field.

using piezoelectric sensors

- Source of sparks;
- Sensors in microphones, hydrophones, sonar (sonar);
- High-accuracy positioning system (scanning tunneling microscope to move the positioner drive heads);
- Adaptive optics for bending of the reflecting surface of the deformable mirror.

Types of sensors: gas sensors
Gas sensor - a device that reacts to the presence of various gases in a particular environment.

A sensor based on the change in the conductivity of the passage of the gas-air mixture on the surface of the catalyst.

device detection and monitoring of gas

Sphere of application:
- Detection and quantitative monitoring of the presence of active donor-acceptor emissions.

Types of sensors: magnetoelectric sensors [5]
Magnetoelectric sensor (magnetic field) - the device, the electrical properties of which vary according to the applied magnetic field.

The principle of the sensor is based on the proportional change in output voltage or resistance of the sensor under the influence of an external magnetic field (Hall effect).

sensor circuit (nanosensors) magnetic field

Schematic representation of the magnetic field sensor based on the method of tracks of fast heavy ions. Notes: 1) dielectric layer, and 2) the semiconductor substrate, and 3) the narrow channels in the dielectric layer, filled with layers of metal or metals, and 4) working relationships, and 5) control input.

application of magnetic field sensors

Application of magnetic field sensors:
- Products of rocket and space technology;
- Safety system for motion detection;
- Navigational instruments and small electromagnetic system.

Types of sensors: biosensors [6]
Biosensors - sensors, includes biological material.

Certain functions biosensor: a specific interaction -> communication -> gain -> conversion to signal
The work of the biosensor based on the interaction of the selector with biological material and recording the proportion of interaction.

principle of the biosensor

Using biosensors:
- The study of intermolecular interactions (determination of reaction rates of association and dissociation);
- Review and monitoring of the formation of thin films (micro-and nano-electronics);
- Biocompatible materials (adsorption of proteins and polymers, biodegradation of surfaces and films).


What changes the prefix "nano"?
The transition from macro to nano.
Nanosensors are qualitatively different from traditional sensors, as usual on such a scale, the macroscopic treatment technologies often not matter, and microscopic phenomena, faint disdain for conventional scales, become much more significant: the properties and interactions of individual atoms and molecules or aggregates of molecules (eg, Van der Waals), quantum effects [7].

Comparative measuring tape for nanodevices.

Comparative measuring tape.


Dimensional relationships of different objects with nanoscale

Dimensional relationships of different objects with nanoscale [8].


Perspectives [9]
Work on the creation of a quantum computer is at the forefront of modern physics.

future quantum computers

Formation nanoobschestva likely to happen to the third quarter of the XXI century. In other words, nanotechnology will evolve to the date.
"Terms - quantum dots, quantum dipoles, quantum wire - are the main terms of the quantum integrated circuits nanoscale quantum computers near future."

Sources of information:

  1. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%94%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%87%D0%B8%D0%BA
  2. http://www.mega-sensor.ru/PDF/uschoise.pdf
  3. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%98%D0%BD%D1%84%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BA%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B5_%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%BB%D1%83%D1%87%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5
  4. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B7%D0%BE%D1%8D%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BA%D1%82%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%87%D0%B5%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B7%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8C
  5. http://cryogenic.physics.by/index.php/ru/scientific-activities/main-results/62-results/225-2011-06-20-14-20-29
  6. http://nano.msu.ru/files/basics/lecture18_Kurochkin.pdf
  7. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9D%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%85%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%B8%D1%8F
  8. http://futureforall.org/nanotechnology/nanotechnology.htm
  9. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9D%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%89%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%BE


Author: Alexander Pavlenko

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